Confucius (551–479 B.C.E.) was one of several intellectuals who started questioning the meaning of life and the role of the gods and the spirits, according to the Macmillan Encyclopedia. During the Warring States Period, Confucius developed a system of ethics and politics that stressed five virtues: charity, justice, propriety, wisdom, and loyalty. His teachings were recorded by his followers in a book called Analects, and formed the code of ethics called Confucianism that have been the cornerstone of Chinese thought for many centuries.
Confucius Day is celebrated every year on September 29th. At Questia, we’re celebrating Confucius Day by learning more about the philosopher and sharing relevant Questia content for free for a whole month. Enjoy!
E. Bruce Brooks – Translator
A. Taeko Brooks – Translator
Publisher: Columbia University Press. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 1998.
This new translation presents the Analects in a revolutionary new format that, for the first time in any language, distinguishes the original words of the Master from the later sayings of his disciples and their followers, enabling readers to experience China’s most influential philosophical work in its true historical, social, and political context.
Xinzhong Yao – Author.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press. Place of publication: Cambridge, England. Publication year: 2000.
Taking into account the long history and wide range of Confucian Studies, this book introduces Confucianism – initiated in China by Confucius (551 BC-479 BC) – primarily as a philosophical and religious tradition. It pays attention to Confucianism in both the West and the East, focussing on the tradition’s doctrines, schools, rituals, sacred places and terminology, but also stressing the adaptations, transformations and new thinking taking place in modern times. Xinzhong Yao presents Confucianism as a tradition with many dimensions and as an ancient tradition with contemporary appeal. This gives the reader a richer and clearer view of how Confucianism functioned in the past and of what it means in the present. A Chinese scholar based in the West, he draws together the many strands of Confucianism in a style accessible to students, teachers, and general readers interested in one of the world’s major religious traditions.
Daniel A. Bell – Editor
Hahm Chaibong – Editor
Publisher: Cambridge University Press. Place of publication: Cambridge, England. Publication year: 2003
While Confucian ideals continue to inspire thinkers and political actors, discussions of Confucian practices and institutions appropriate for the modern era have been conspicuously absent. This volume discloses in meticulous detail the relevance of Confucianism to the contemporary world. Contributions by internationally renowned philosophers, lawyers, historians, and social scientists argue for feasible and desirable Confucian policies and institutions, as they draw out the political, economic, and legal implications of Confucianism for the modern world.
Shu-Hsien Liu – Author
Publisher: Praeger. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 2003.
This volume is the follow-up to Understanding Confucian Philosophy: Classical and Sung-Ming, which presented the first two Epochs of Confucian philosophy. The third Epoch, presented in this book, is that of Contemporary Neo-Confucian philosophy. It notes a paradigm shift from the late Ming to the early Ch’ing, which shows us how the line of Sung-Ming Neo-Confucian philosophy was broken. Then, background information is given to answer the question of how the phoenix was reborn from the ashes; at the height of the iconoclast May Fourth Movement in 1919, Liang Sou-ming, the forerunner of the movement, developed his ideas about East-West cultures and their philosophies.
Kim-chong Chong – Author
Publisher: Open Court. Place of publication: Chicago. Publication year: 2007
“In Early Confucian Ethics, Kim-chong Chong re-examines the thinking of the three classical Confucians – Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi – keeping each of them distinct, and not falling into the common trap of reading Confucius and Xunzi in Mencian terms. While clearly explaining the main ethical ideas of the three sages, Chong confronts controversial scholarly issues and resolves such puzzles as why it is that Confucius declares that he rarely discourses on ren (‘humanity’) when in fact he repeatedly refers to it.”